Power Electronics for Wireless Devices
Analysis of Secondary Networks Having Distributed Generation Systems
Mitigation of Voltage Disturbances Caused by Nonlinear Electrical Massive Loads
Development of a Unit Substation Demand Estimator
Mitigation Techniques to Reduce Inrush Currents of Network Transformers
Secure Built-In-Self-Test (BIST) Architecture
Fault Tolerant Nanoscale Systems
Hybrid CMOS/Nano Circuit Design
Devices and Algorithms for Medical Implants
Participating Faculty: Dariusz Czarkowski
Motivation: Portable power sources such as batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors; energy harvesting; and wireless power are candidates for powering wireless devices. Limited life span of portable sources, low output power and unreliability and low efficiency of energy harvesting methods, and inefficiency of wireless power restrict applications and decrease performance of a wireless device or network. Optimization of the power consumption characteristics of wireless devices and networks can be achieved at many levels of the system design: efficient power distribution systems, low-power demand architecture, power minimizing network algorithms, power efficient network structures, and power aware functionality specifications and requirements.
Goals: To develop power electronics topologies, control algorithms, and supervisory strategies which will minimize the effects of limited energy supply to portable wireless devices. To explore various schemes of energy harvesting and their applications in wireless devices.
Background: This project focuses on power conversion hardware for wireless devices. It is interconnected with other energy conservation WICAT efforts under the DREAM-IT umbrella. The PI has been also cooperating with ConnectionOne Center at Arizona State University and the body area network team at the University of Virginia. The efforts have resulted so far in 2 conference publications, one MS thesis, and several student research posters. Experimental verification of the research is under way with an objective of journal paper submissions.
Work Plan: Topologies of dc-dc switching converters and hybrid converters will be adapted to the needs of wireless equipment. New topologies will be developed. The work will include simulations of converters with Spice software, layout and its verification with Cadence analog suite, and manufacturing of the prototypes and experimental confirmation. It is expected that the power switching frequencies will reach the range of 100 MHz in order to decrease the size of components, improve dynamics, and ultimately increase the efficiency. This range has not been yet achieved in power electronics and poses several challenges to be investigated in this project, namely effects of parasitic, simple and power efficient implementation of the control circuitry, matching of power levels to the device needs. In the energy harvesting area, the focus will be on development of matching and power conditioning circuits to extract energy from such sources as piezoceramic generators, photovoltaic, and thermoelectric sources to achieve the highest possible energy yield.
 S. Suresh, Y. Lu, and D. Czarkowski, “100 MHz DC-DC Switching Converter with Tracking Control,” Proceedings of the IEEE IECON, Orlando, FL, November 2008.
 Y. Lu, S. Suresh, and D. Czarkowski, “Integrated Controller for a 100 MHz DC-DC Switching Converter,” Proceedings of the IEEE APCCAS, P. R. China, November 2008.
 Kwok-Kei Ching, “Analysis and design of resonant converters for energy harvesting,” MS Thesis, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, May 2008.
Distributed Generation (DG) is predicted to play an increasing role in the electric power system of the near future. ‘DG’ means that generators of limited size (from a few kW to a few MW) will be connected to the utility distribution system at customer load levels, at distribution feeder buses, or at substation locations. It is critical that the power system impacts be assessed accurately so that these DG units can be applied in a manner that avoids causing degradation of service, such as power quality, reliability, and control of the utility system.
This project addresses the effects of distributed generators utilizing interposed static converter systems (specifically synchronous-generator/DC-link/utility-line units) on the effect on the network-protectors of transformers during steady state operation, and also on short-circuit fault currents. The system assumed to be balanced and a per-phase analysis was used. One of Consolidated Edison of NYC networks, namely the Sutton network, has been selected as a case study as shown in Fig. 1. This network, one of the smallest in Manhattan, extends from 52nd to 57th Street and from 1st to 5th Avenue. Using EMTP, the analysis included the complete simulation of the Sutton secondary network with its 12 13.8 kV feeders, and a 9 MW static converter connected at different locations on the primary and on the secondary networks as presented in Fig. 2.
Power utilities around the world become recently more and more concern about maintaining high quality of power they provide for the customers. The reason for that is both increasing number of nonlinear devices, which cause pollution of the voltage and sensitiveness of other equipment to this pollution. Variation in the voltage level can be seen as annoying blinking of fluorescent lights in our houses, but can also interrupt proper operation of modern industrial machines or even damage some very sensitive appliance. Heavy and nonlinear loads are main sources of the voltage distortion in the electrical power grids. In the example below we can see a heavy induction motor powering a car shredder and causing variation of the voltage on its terminal. This variation transmitted through utility lines may be the reason for improper operation of the machine in the factory or can be seen in the house as a fluctuating light.
Long Island Power Authority and KeySpan Energy sponsor this power research project to investigate and mitigate disturbances in Long Island power network.
Today electric utility companies use a wide range of computerized applications for energy management. These applications have an important role in many aspects in the power system industry. Using real-time measurements and different data analysis methods, these applications are responsible for the creation of reasonable and accurate representation of the network. These applications are also used for short term and long term load forecasting during significantly degraded operations.
A Unit Substation Demand Estimator (USDE) is needed to estimate missing data from substations in various networks across NYC and Westchester County. As a starting point for this study and the USDE development, Flatbush Brooklyn network has been chosen as the first network to be tested.
This project describes the design and implementation of a USDE. The project presents different methods for estimation of missing data measurements. Each method is tested in detail to validate the accuracy of the estimated data and an estimation process strategy is suggested.
By using the successive estimation methods and Visual Basic for Application code, a USDE application is developed. The USDE application is then tested and special tuning functions are developed to improve the estimation process and the estimation results.
Participating Faculty: Zivan Zabar
Transformer energization at no-load may result in a very high inrush current that is a function of the switching instant of the terminal voltage, which is totally random. In an electric distribution system, a feeder energizes many parallel-connected network transformers. Following maintenance work on the feeder, when its circuit breaker closes, it would need to withstand the combined inrush currents of all those transformers, and that peak current may cause improper operation of protective relays.
One way to reduce that inrush current would be to minimize the residual flux in all the transformer cores. The work includes an investigation, using the EMTP code, of a few possible methods of minimizing the residual flux, and the degree to which each was able to reduce the inrush current. The most applicable method is based on the known principle that demagnetization of an iron core is achieved by repeatedly reversing the voltage at the terminals of the device, while, at the same time, steadily decreasing its magnitude. At utility frequencies, 50 or 60 Hz, the power supply is relatively large. The novel idea here is the use of a very-much-lower-frequency power supply, which leads to a very small power requirement (about 2% of that for a 50 – 60 Hz unit).
The next phase would be the construction and field-testing of a prototype (pending proposal).
Participating Faculty: Ramesh Karri
Crypto algorithms are being implemented in hardware to meet high throughput requirements and widely integrated as crypto accelerators in System-On-Chip (SOC) devices for secure applications ranging from tiny smart cards to high performance routers. In a secure SOC, crypto coprocessors offload intensive arithmetic computations from the host processor. A straightforward way to use BIST to test symmetric block cipher circuits is using an additional Test Pattern Generator (TPG) and Output Response Analyzer (ORA) circuits. In the test mode, the inputs to crypto data path are applied from the TPG instead of the plaintext; the outputs from crypto data path are compressed into ORA as a signature.
In a BIST architecture, the aim of TPG is to provide random inputs to Circuit under Test (CUT). Since exhaustive testing is almost impossible, for example AES data path needs 2128 test patterns, the probability distribution for test patterns determines the length of test patterns to insure an acceptable level of fault coverage. LFSR tends to produce test patterns having equal numbers of 0s and 1s on each output test pattern resulting in very long test patterns for some circuits. Weighted random pattern generators bias the distribution of 0s and 1s that makes test patterns more random thereby achieving a higher fault coverage with fewer test patterns. Strong randomness is an inherent feature of crypto algorithms. A block cipher can be considered as an instance of a random permutation over a message block under the control of a key block. In fact, the security of a block cipher can be formalized by pseudorandomness: if there is no way to distinguish the block cipher from an ideal random permutation, then the block cipher can not be attacked. One or more round operations are non-linear transformations in symmetric block ciphers. For example, in both DES and AES, the non-linear substitution is used. The randomness of several symmetric block cipher algorithms has been evaluated by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
In BIST technique, the ORA operates as a hash function; it compresses all the test results into a signature. MISR is a simple hash function and widely used as ORA. Collision probability is the most important parameter for a hash function. It is defined as the probability that two different messages have the same hash result. The smaller the collision probability is, the better the hash function. If a result sequence with faulty output vectors can also be compressed into the correct signature, such faults can not be tested. Both the quality of TPG and ORA determines the efficiency of the BIST technique. Block cipher in CBC mode is the one of the most powerful hash function widely used in message authentication code. It is computationally infeasible for such hash functions to find messages x and x’ such that x’ ≠ x and hash (x’) = hash(x). A block cipher can be used either as a TPG with more random output patterns or as an ORA with very low collision probability. Based on this key observation, we develop a BIST technique called Secure BIST to test block cipher modules. In the proposed Secure BIST technique, the output of a crypto core (ciphertext) is fed back to the input of the crypto core (plaintext) in the test mode and the signature is compressed into the output ciphertext register. The proposed Secure BIST technique incurs almost no area overhead by using a crypto module itself as both the TPG and the ORA.
We validated Secure BIST on hardware implementations of Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The experimental results show that Secure BIST is superior to LFSR-based BIST in terms of area overhead, fault coverage and test sequence length.
 Bo Yang and Ramesh Karri, A Secure Built-In Self Test Technique for Crypto Modules in Secure Systems-On-Chip (SOC), submitted to IEEE Transactions on Computer.
Participating Faculty: Ramesh Karri
Collaborators: Alex Orailoglu and Kaijie Wu
New technologies based on nanoscale physical characteristics such as Resonant Tunneling Diodes, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata and molecular electronics have been researched and are being proposed as candidates for next generation device technologies. However, physical limitations at the nanoscale result in highly unreliable fabrication mechanisms which in turn translate into highly unreliable nano devices. Consequently, device failure rates in these emerging nanotechnologies are projected to be in the order of 10-3-10-1. Furthermore, the faulty behavior is time varying and hard to model. Overall, fault tolerance is an important system level design objective in these emerging nanotechnologies. In current CMOS based technologies, fault rates are static and in the range 10-9-10-7. The typical techniques for addressing reliability in CMOS technologies, namely, extensive testing at manufacturing time, and a limited amount of redundant hardware added into the circuitry for high operation time reliability, cannot be successfully applied in emerging nanotechnologies with much higher and time varying failure rates. Fundamentally, manufacturing processes and hence failure mechanisms are different and the devices per unit area are several orders of magnitude larger (~107 device/cm2 in CMOS vs ~1012 device/cm2 in emerging nanotechnologies).
This research investigates design principles for building reliable systems from unreliable nano device technologies of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) and Negative Differential Resistance (NDR).
Fault tolerant QCA building block design
Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) is a straightforward way to provide fault tolerance capability. However, TMR is not a good choice for designing fault tolerant QCA designs since wires, faults in wires, and wire delays dominate in this nanotechnology. We propose TMR using Shifted Operands (TMRSO) as a new approach to designing fault tolerant QCA designs with lower area overhead and better performance than straightforward TMR 0. This new method exploits the self-latching and adiabatic pipelining properties of QCA devices to maximize throughput of a system since more than one calculation can be in the pipeline at a given time. We have validated this concept on a two-bit adder as shown in Figure 1.
Fault Tolerant NDR building block design
Error checking code based information redundancy approach has been regarded as a powerful fault tolerance scheme in communication and storage systems. Preliminary work in this direction has shown that, by exploiting the characteristics of certain Nanotechnology devices, linear block code based information redundancy approach can be applied to carry save based arithmetic subsystems, thus providing a promising vision of further developing a low-overhead unified fault tolerance scheme for Nanotechnology systems 0.
Figure 2 shows an example of fault tolerance carry save addition and the functional flow of the fault detection technique in carry-save addition using linear block coding theory.
Fault tolerant nanotechnology processor design
We propose to investigate a new decentralized architecture that incorporates powerful and flexible fault tolerance strategies in the Nanotechnology environment 0. As a preliminary work, we have developed a fault tolerance strategy with a certain degree of decentralization in computation units that dynamically selects between hardware and time redundancy in response to the time varying fault rates in the system. Figure 3 shows a high-level view of the instruction issue process and the interaction between the voters and the C-units.
 T. Wei, K. Wu, R. Karri and A. Orailoglu, Fault Tolerant Quantum Cellular Array (QCA) Design using Triple Modular Redundancy with Shifted Operands, ASP-DAC 2005, to appear
 W. Rao, A. Orailoglu and R. Karri, Fault Tolerant Arithmetic with Applications in Nanotechnology based System, International Test Conference, pp. 472-478, October 2004
 W. Rao, A. Orailoglu and R. Karri, Fault Tolerant Nanoelectronic Processor Architectures, ASP-DAC 2005, to appear.
In recent years many researchers have begun investigating the use of novel nanoelectronic devices in computer systems. The reason for such interest in nanotechnology stems from the fact that conventional technologies, specifically complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS), are becoming more unreliable and difficult to work with as device feature sizes scale into the nanometer regime. These issues emerge for various reasons, including difficulty in fabricating such small devices, higher sensitivities to parameter variations and characteristics that are increasingly dependent on quantum phenomena. Novel nanoscale technologies (e.g, quantum cellular automata, single electronics and molecular electronics) offer several potential advantages where issues due to scaling may be adverted or, in some cases, even leveraged as features in new design approaches for digital circuits and architectures. Of course, conventional CMOS technology has grown strong roots in the microelectronics industry and will not be phased out completely anytime soon. Thus, the point of this research is not simply an exploration into the use of nanotechnology for digital logic and memory but also how novel nanoelectronic circuits can be integrated with conventional CMOS. Such hybrid CMOS/Nano systems (illustrated in Figure 1) aim to take advantage of each technology for optimal area utilization, performance, power consumption and design complexity [1, 2].
A Hybrid CMOS/Molecular Memory Design
Many molecular electronic devices fabricated to date have exhibited a property known as hysteresis whereby a device can be made to operate with one of two possible conductivity states. Since there are two possibilities for conductance, or resistance, the device can be easily used as a memory cell where one conductivity state represents logic 1 and the other logic 0. Shown below in Figure 2 is a hybrid CMOS/molecular memory design where molecular devices are used to store data and CMOS is used to access the memory. This memory was designed from a circuit designer’s perspective considering factors such as power consumption, device parameter variations and scalability [3, 4].
On-Chip Characterization of Nanoscale Devices via CMOS Circuitry
An important step in developing hybrid CMOS/molecular circuits is to design CMOS circuitry for the on-chip characterization of molecular electronic devices. Work has already begun in collaboration with researchers at NIST to design and implement simple circuits (amplifiers, decoders, etc.) that can be fabricated as parts of first generation CMOS/molecular systems. Current work at Poly has consisted of the design of verification of this test circuitry while collaborators have already begun fabricating molecular electronic devices and circuits. As this project develops, hybrid CMOS/molecular circuits will not only be designed and verified using CAD tools but will also be realized and tested in the lab, bringing such novel approaches one step closer to reality .
 M. R. Stan, G. S. Rose, and M. M. Ziegler, “Hybrid CMOS/Molecular Integrated Circuits,” in Moore’s Law: Beyond Planar Silicon CMOS and into the Nano Era, H. Huff, Ed., Springer, in press.
 M. R. Stan, G. S. Rose, and M. M. Ziegler, “Hybrid CMOS/molecular Electronic Circuits,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on VLSI Design, Hyderabad, India, Jan. 2006.
 G. S. Rose, Y. Yao, J. M. Tour, A. C. Cabe, N. Gergel-Hackett, N. Majumdar, J. C. Bean, L. R. Harriott, and M. R. Stan, “Designing CMOS/Molecular Memories while Considering Device Parameter Variations,” ACM Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computing, submitted.
 G. S. Rose, A. C. Cabe, N. Gergel-Hackett, N. Majumdar, M. R. Stan, J. C. Bean, L. R. Harriott, Y. Yao, and J. M. Tour, “Design Approaches for Hybrid CMOS/Molecular Memory Based on Experimental Device Data,” in Proceedings of the ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, Philadelphia, PA, May 2006, pp. 2-7. (Best student paper.)
 N. Gergel-Hackett, G. S. Rose, P. Paliwoda, C. A. Hacker, C. A. Richter, “OnChip Characterization of Molecular Electronic Devices: The Design and Simulation of a Hybrid Circuit Based on Experimental Molecular Electronic Device Results,” in Proceedings of the ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, 2007, submitted.
Chip multiprocessors (CMPs) have become favored over traditional superscalar processors for efficiently exploiting single-chip computational potential. One major factor motivating CMP development is that computation speed can be increased with only a modest increase in power. While CMP systems consist of regular processing elements (PE) and memory modules, they tend to be simpler in design and easier to scale. In a CMP system, the chip area is normally divided into a number of tiles, each containing a PE, memory module, or more. Different tiles can be interconnected through a network-on-chip (NOC), which has a great influence on CMP performance. It is the purpose of our research to explore the impact of high-speed NOC architectures in emerging many-core CMP designs.
In addition to pursuing low latency and high throughput for a NOC design, routing area and power consumption must also be considered. Most NOC topologies proposed to date consist of regular interconnection structures, such as 2D-Mesh or 2D-Torus for easy implementation. However, as more tiles or network nodes are put on the same chip, e.g., a few hundreds or even a thousand, the result is increased latency for delivering packets from one node to another due to a large number of network hops. This will become a performance bottleneck for larger systems.
A Clos network provides much better scalability than the 2D-Mesh network. A 3- or 5-stage Clos network can easily accommodate up to a few hundred or a thousand nodes. The number of hops a packet traverses in the Clos network is limited to 3 or 5. Thus, a Clos NOC provides smaller and more predictable end-to-end latency as compared to a 2D-Mesh NOC. One major concern for the Clos network is its large number of long interconnection wires, which may lead to increased routing area and power dissipation. We have done a study comparing a Clos network with 64 nodes to a 2D-Mesh network with the same number of nodes. To our surprise, we found that the power consumption in the Clos network is less than that in the 2D-Mesh network. This can be explained by a reduced number of on-chip routers and fewer packet read/write operations in the Clos network.
We are currently investigating a Clos Network-on-Chip (CNOC) architecture for emerging CMP systems for its performance and feasibility with a few hundred nodes. For instance, by increasing the interconnection stages of the CNOC from 3 to 5, we are able to connect up to 512 nodes with 64 nodes per chip. Obviously, the inter-chip connections pose even greater challenges than the on-chip connections. Emerging 3D IC technology provides a viable solution for inter-chip connections. More specifically, the long inter-chip connection wires in the traditional 2D Clos NOC design can be replaced by the short inter-chip through vias, resulting in significant reduction of latency and power. In this project, we plan to prototype the CNOC using the state-of-the-art 3D technology to demonstrate the proposed routing/switching scheme while achieving low latency and power consumption.
This project is currently supported by the U.S. Army’s CERDEC. Some of the designs are being implemented on the FPGA chips for verification. The following figure shows the configuration of a 64-node 3-stage CNOC. All links are uni-directional, and packets travel upward.
Participating Faculty: Jonathan Chao and N. Sertac Artan
Collaborators: Dr. Nandor Ludvig and Geza Medveczky (New York University Comprehensive Epilepsy Center) and Piotr Mirowski (Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University)
Web Site: http://eeweb.poly.edu/labs/hsnl/
Cerebral cortical epilepsy, affecting about 150,000 people in the US, is resistant to all available anti-epileptic drugs, and is unsuitable for traditional surgical interventions. In this project, we are working with our collaborators, Dr. Nandor Ludvig, Geza Medveczky and Piotr Mirowski to develop the subdural Hybrid Neuroprosthesis (HNP) (Fig. 1), an implant for the treatment of cerebral cortical epilepsy. When completed, HNP will record the electrical discharges of neurons in the epileptogenic cerebral cortical area, recognize the abnormal discharge patterns leading to an epileptic seizure, and, whenever such discharge patterns appear, deliver an anti-epileptic drug directly into the epileptogenic area to prevent seizure generation. Dr. Ludvig and his colleagues have pioneered the design of a novel medical device (Ludvig and Kovacs, 2002; US Patent 6,497,699) for the treatment of intractable focal epilepsy.
At NYU-Poly, we are developing implantable devices and hardware-friendly algorithms for the HNP.
There are two key implantable hardware components of the HNP under development in NYU-Poly:
- A transcutaneously rechargeable power supply
- A two-way RF communication module
Figure 1: Concept of the Subdural Hybrid Neuroprosthesis (HNP)
As surgically implantable devices are required to provide increasingly complicated tasks, their power requirements increase accordingly. This increase in the power requirement is so much that a single charge on an implantable battery can only power these devices for a time on the order of months, depending on the application. Since replacing the implanted battery requires a surgery, only rechargeable batteries can provide a feasible solution, eliminating the need for frequent surgeries. On the other hand, it is also a challenge to charge a battery transcutaneously in a short time with high efficiency to avoid any discomfort to the patient in forms of long waiting time and excessive heating.
We are investigating different battery charging strategies for efficiently charging implanted batteries.
The RF module should be able to transmit at least 640 kbps to accommodate the transmission of 4 channels of multi-neuron signals, while consuming minimum power. In this project, we are evaluating different RF transmission techniques for implantable devices.
Algorithms for Medical Implants
The first step this project will take is to develop the basic algorithm for the HNP software, so that the device can recognize the neuronal discharge patterns that lead to seizures. Since it is hard to mimic the complex, ever-changing discharge patterns of cerebral cortical neurons in real life, and since no tissue slice or tissue culture preparations can faithfully reproduce the manifestations of an epileptic seizure, we rely on animal experiments. Thus, brief seizure episodes are induced in the animals, and the discharge patterns of cerebral cortical neurons before seizure generation are analyzed to develop the algorithm for the HNP software.
 N. Sertac Artan, Piotr Mirowski, Hai Tang, Geza Medveczky, Shirn Baptiste, H. Jonathan Chao, Orinn Devinsky, Ruben Kuzniecky, and Nandor Ludvig, “Detecting Abnormally Large-Amplitude Multi-Neuron Bursts Before Focal Neocortical EEG Seizure Onset In Freely Behaving Rats,” to appear in American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, Boston, December 2009.
 Nandor Ludvig, Hai Tang, Shirn Baptiste, Geza Medveczky, N. Sertac Artan, H. Jonathan Chao, Piotr Mirowski, Orinn Devinsky, Jacqueline French, and Ruben Kuzniecky, “Cellular Electrophysiological Effects of Seizure-Preventing Concentrations of Transmeningeal Muscimol in the Rat Neocortex,” to appear in American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting, Boston, December 2009.