This course covers limits to the ongoing miniaturization (Moore’s Law) of the successful silicon-device technology imposed by physical limitations of energy dissipation, quantum tunneling and discrete quantum electron states. Quantum physical concepts and elementary Schrodinger theory. Conductance quantum and magnetic flux quantum. Alternative physical concepts appropriate for devices of size scales of 1 to 10 nanometers, emphasizing role of power dissipation. Tunnel diode, resonant tunnel diode, electron wave transistor; spin valve, tunnel valve, magnetic disk and random access memory; single electron transistor, molecular crossbar latch, quantum cellular automata including molecular and magnetic realizations. Josephson junction and “rapid single flux quantum” computation. Photo- and x-ray lithographic patterning, electron beam patterning, scanning probe microscopes for observation and for fabrication; cantilever array as dense memory, use of carbon nanotubes and of DNA and related biological elements as building blocks and in self-assembly strategies.
Prerequisites: PH2004 or PH2033.